Which cookies are used by this websire?
This website uses only third party cookies, specifically:
- Disqus cookies that are not used to profile the user. Those cookies fall in the Technical Cookies category
What is a cookie and what is its purpose?
A cookie is a small file that is sent to the browser and saved on your device when you visit a website. Cookies allow the site to function efficiently and improve its services, in addition to providing information to the site owner for statistical or advertising purposes, primarily to personalize your navigation experience by remembering your preferences (for example, remembering the language and currency you set, in order to recognize you at the next visit, etc.)
What types of cookies exist?
The cookies can be of different types based on their goal:
- Technical cookies: these allow the user to navigate through the website or application and use the various options or services there. For example, with traffic control and data communication, to identify the session, access restricted Web parts, remember the elements of an order, make the request for registration or participation in an event, use the security features during navigation, and store content for broadcast video or sound. Legally, cookies used to collect and analyse traffic in an anonymously way are considered technical cookies. In this case, the deactivation of the cookies can be executed without any loss of functionality.
- Profiling cookies: these allow the to profile the users of a websites. These can be used for advertisement or for statistical analysis. Advertising cookie can be used to effective management of advertising spaces which are included in the Web page or application from which the service is provided. They allow the adaptation of advertising for it to be relevant to the user and to avoid showing ads that the user has already seen. Statistical analysis cookies allow the monitoring and analysis of user behaviour on websites. The information gathered through such cookies is used in measuring the activity of web, application or platform sites and the profiling of user navigation of these sites, in order to make improvements to the service and functionality for users.
Also cookies can be divided in two categories based on the creator of the cookie:
- First-part cookies: are created and managed by the website owner
- Third-part cookies: are created and managed by a third-part
How can I manage my cookie?
The user has the option to allow, block or delete cookies installed on your computer by setting your browser options installed on your terminal: for more information about this, look the documentation of your browser of choice.
Are some data collected without cookie?
As for every other website, the web servers that serve this website will receive some information about the client that made the request. Some of those information are also logged for metrics and security reasons.
More specifically, the following data about every loaded object is logged:
- date: The date on which the event occurred in the format yyyy-mm-dd (in UTC).
- time: The time when the server finished responding to the request (in UTC).
- x-edge-location: The edge location that served the request.
- sc-bytes: The total number of bytes that the server served to the viewer in response to the request, including headers.
- c-ip: The IP address of the viewer that made the request.
- cs-method: The HTTP access method: DELETE, GET, HEAD, OPTIONS, PATCH, POST, or PUT.
- cs-uri-stem: The portion of the URI that identifies the path and object, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.
- sc-status: An HTTP status code. For a list of HTTP status codes, see RFC 2616, Hypertext Transfer Protocol—HTTP 1.1, section 10, Status Code Definitions.
- cs(Referer): The name of the domain that originated the request.
- cs(User-Agent): The value of the User-Agent header in the request.
- cs-uri-query: The query string portion of the URI, if any.
- x-edge-request-id: An encrypted string that uniquely identifies a request. In the response header, this is x-amz-cf-id.
- x-host-header: The domain name requested by the viewer.
- cs-protocol: The protocol that the viewer specified in the request.
- cs-bytes: The number of bytes of data that the viewer included in the request (client to server bytes), including headers.
- time-taken: The number of seconds (to the thousandth of a second) between the time that an edge server receives a viewer’s request and the time that the edge server writes the last byte of the response to its output queue as measured on the server.
- x-forwarded-for If the viewer used an HTTP proxy or a load balancer to send the request, the value of c-ip is the IP address of the proxy or load balancer. In that case, x-forwarded-for is the IP address of the viewer that originated the request.
- ssl-protocol: The SSL protocol that the client and the server negotiated for transmitting the request and response.
- ssl-cipher: The SSL cipher that the client and the server negotiated for encrypting the request and response.
- cs-protocol-version: The HTTP version that the viewer specified in the request.
Is it possible to connect the log data to real people?
This is a point open for debate. The two information that are present in the logs which might help identify the user behind a request are:
- the time and date of the request
- the IP address of the request
In the logs the User Agent also appears, but since it’s a string set by the requester, it can be faked so it would be pointless to use it to identify a requester.
In some jurisdictions, it is possible - given the IP address and the date/time - to identify the ISP contract that was using that IP at that moment, and therefore identify the physical person that signed the contract. In some jurisdictions, this is enough to consider the user identifiable, in many other this is not, since many ISP contracts are shared among multiple people (ie: the members of a single family), not counting possible unauthorized accesses.